Experienced Entomologists On Staff

Adult and larval honey bee studies are performed at CAR year round according to GLP OPPTS guidelines. In-hive as well as confined in-hive studies can be performed from April to November. Growth chamber larval and adults studies are available at any time. Environmentally controlled growth chambers are used to ensure age selection and control cross-contamination during testing. Experienced entomologists on staff are available to observe and record data along with trained technicians. Study design and protocol development are done to satisfy Sponsor needs. Draft protocols available on request.

For specialized studies requested by the EPA and/or OECD guidelines, protocol development is available. Cost for protocol development are based on protocol requirements. Should the study not be initiated, development fees will be charged. Final reports for EPA submission can be issued within two months of study completion depending upon sponsor request. Protocol development under strictest confidentiality.

CAR maintains a full apiary of 50 hives at two locations. Hives are maintained to commercial standards and professional beekeepers are continuously consulted to produce a high quality standard test organism, which is often the hive itself. Most studies are performed March through November depending on weather conditions.

Guidelines

OPPTS 850.3020
Honey Bee Acute Contact Toxicity

OPPTS 850.3030
Honey Bee Toxicity of Residues on Foliage

OPPTS 850.3040
Field Testing for Pollinators

OPPTS 885.4380
Honey Bee Testing, Tier I

OECD Guideline 213
Honeybees, Acute Oral Toxicity Test

OECD Guideline 214
Honeybees, Acute Contact Toxicity Test

Research Trials
& Studies

  • Residue Bioassay RT25 Exposure of adult bees in cages to field sprayed foliage collected at time intervals
  • Adult Acute Contact Topical application to adult bees in laboratory cages
  • Adult Feeding Laboratory feeding exposure of caged adults
  • In vitro Larval Feeding Studies (Ring Tested in 2011) Individual larvae develop entirely in the laboratory
  • In-Hive Larval Larvae are dosed and develop in the hive
  • Adult Pollen Feeding Laboratory study quantifies adult pollen consumption
  • In Field
  • Confined Whole Hive Studies (Semi-Field) Nuc hives are confined in the field on a treated blooming crop
  • Field Studies of 2 to 20 acres Multiple hives in treated fields
  • Field Sampling of Bee Relevant Matrixes from treated crops throughout California